Taharat & Ablution

ya aiey yuhal lazeena amanoo izaa quntum ilas salaati faghsiloo wujoohakum wa aiediyakum iilal maraafiqi wamsahoo biru oosikum wa arjulakum iilal kabaien.
o those who have believed! when you rise up for namaaz, you should wash your faces and your hands upto the elbows and do masah (passing wet fingers of the hands) of your heads and wash your feet upto the ankles. with out ablution namaaz becomes void. ablution is essential for namaaz.

Taharat

ISTANJA
Ibn Abbas (RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) came upon two graves and said: “Their occupants are being punished, but not for a great sin (in their own view). However, it is in fact a great sin. One of them went about spreading slander. The other did not clean himself properly after urination…” (Bukhari and Muslim)
It is compulsory to do Istibra’ after urinating. Istibra’ is to ensure that the traces of urine has come out completely. Some examples of Istibra’: one should shake, sway or squeeze the penis very gently, coughing, taking few steps, jogging, lying on the left side etc, there is no restrictions in Istibra’, one may do Istibra’ in any way one is used to.

It will not be permissible to begin Wudhu without doing Istibra’.

(Quduri Pg.25, Nurul Idhah Pg.27, Hashiat Tahtawi Pg.42, Al Fiqhul Hanafi Wa Adillatuh Vol.1 Pg.38)

In Quduri, it is mentioned:

1) Istinja is Sunnah.

Narrated Anas bin Malik (RadhiyAllahu Anhu):

Whenever the Prophet went to answer the call of nature, I used to bring water with which he used to clean his private parts. (Bukhari, Book of Ablution)

2) Stones, and that which take their place (i.e. tissue etc,), suffice; one wipes [the area] until it is clean.

3) Washing it with water is better.

4) If the filth exceeds its orifice, nothing but water may be used [to remove it].

5) One should not perform istinja’ with a bone, nor with dung, nor with food, nor with the right hand.

Narrated Abu Huraira (RadhiyAllahu Anhu):

I followed the Prophet while he was going out to answer the call of nature. He used not to look this way or that. So, when I approached near him he said to me, “Fetch for me some stones for ‘ cleaning the privates parts (or said something similar), and do not bring a bone or a piece of dung.” So I brought the stones in the corner of my garment and placed them by his side and I then went away from him. When he finished (from answering the call of nature) he used, them. (Bukhari, Book of Ablution)

The Method of performing Istinja’:
If one’s testicles are hanging one should wipe with the first stone from the front to the back and with the second from the back to the front and with the third from the front to the back [for fear of defiling one’s testicles]. If the testicles are not hanging, then one should start from the back. A female should start from the front to the back for the fear of defiling her vagina.

Thereafter, one should wash the hand and using water wipe the soiled area with the inner side of one, two, or even three fingers if needed. A male will raise his middle finger over the rest when commencing the Istinja’ [then after washing slightly] he will raise the ring finger [and if need be then the small finger and then the index finger]. One should not suffice upon the use of one finger. A female should raise her ring and middle finger simultaneously from the outset for fear of being sexually aroused.

The utmost should be done in cleansing oneself until the foul smell has been eliminated, whilst thoroughly relaxing one’s buttocks [so as to clean what is in the passage to the best of one’s ability], unless fasting. Upon completion one should wash the hand again. If fasting one should wipe (with tissue etc,) oneself before standing. (Nurul Idhah Pg.28)

The Adaab (ettiquettes) of relieving oneself:

(1) One should enter the toilet leading with the left foot;

(2) before entering seek refuge in Allah from the rejected Shaitan.

Narrated Anas (RadhiyAllahu Anhu):

Whenever the Prophet went to answer the call of nature, he used to say, “Allah-umma inni a’udhu bika minal khubuthi wal khaba’ith i.e. O Allah, I seek Refuge with You from all offensive and wicked things (evil deeds and evil spirits).” (Bukhari, Book of Ablution)

[Whilst in the open one should recite the supplication before uncovering oneself, I`la al-sunan 1/451];

(3) one should sit leaning upon the left foot;

(4) and not speak, except out of necessity.

It is Makruh Tahrimi (whilst relieving oneself) to have one’s face or back towards the Qibla, even though one is in a building.

Narrated Abu Aiyub Al-Ansari (RadhiyAllahu Anhu):

Allah’s Apostle said, “If anyone of you goes to an open space for answering the call of nature he should neither face nor turn his back towards the Qibla; he should either face the east or the west.” (Bukhari, Book of Ablution)

To urinate towards the sun or moon is Makruh [being two great signs (Ayats) of Allah. However, this act is considered Makruh Tanzihi rather than Makruh Tahrimi according to Ibn Abidin].

It is Makruh to sit and urinate in the direction of the wind. [The reason for this is that the wind may blow the urine back to the person, thus causing his clothes to be soiled and the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) warned against this in a number of Ahadith].

It is also Makruh:

(1) To urinate or defecate in water;

(2) under some shade; in a hole; on the path;

(3) under a fruit tree;

(4) or urinate standing without an excuse.

[It is Makruh to enter the toilet wearing anything with the name of Allah, Abu Da’ud and Tirmidhi have related upon the authority of Anas (RadhiyAllahu Anhu) that he said, “When the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) would enter the lavatory he would remove his ring, “because engraved upon it was ‘Muhammad the Messenger of Allah.'”

Ibn Hajr has stated, “that it can be derived from this that it is mustahab to remove anything which has a revered name upon it from the Names of Allah, the Prophets or Angels.” Not to remove it would be deemed Makruh due to disrespect].
Finally, the last ettiquette one should leave the lavatory with one’s right foot then recite, “Ghufaranak Alhamdulilla hilladhi Adhhaba `Annil Adha Wa`Afani” [O Lord] Your forgiveness. Praise be to Allah who rid me of the filth and gave me health.

(Nurul Idhah Pg.27-30, Hasiat Tahtawi Ala maraqil Falah Pg.42-56)

HOW TO DO ABLUTION:

Ablution

first of all one should define the intention (neey yat) to purify himself and to seek raward. then he should recite bismil lahir rahmaanir raheem (al laah in whose name i begin,is the most compassionate, the most Merciful), and wash both his hands upto the wrists thrice. then, he should wash his mouth thrice and also brush his teeth with a miswaak (a softened and shortened branch of a tree used for cleansing the teeth). then, he should sniff water into the nostrils thrice and cleanse the nose with the left hand. then he should wash his face thricein such a manner that no spot, from the forelock upto under the chin and the lobes of the two ears, remains dry. if one keeps a beard he should do khilaal (pass his wet fingers) through it . then, wash both his hands upto, and including, the elbows, first the right hand and then the left hand. then, wetting his hands with fresh water, he should do masah of his entire head once, in such a way that he passes three fingers of both his hands over the nape of the neck aand, then after passing them over the nape of the neck, bring them back. then, after passing them over the nape of the neck, bring them back. then, do masah of the inside of his ears with the index finger and of the neack with the back of the fingers. then, wash the two feet thrice, first the right foot upto the ankle with his left hand and with passing his wet hand betwen the toes.
of the procedure laid down above, some are (fard)obligatory for ablution, some are sun nat (prophetic trations) and some are mustahab (desirable). they are given below.

OBLIGATORY (FARD) ACTS OF ABLUTION
ablution is not performed with doing these things, and they are four:

  1. Washing the face.
  2. Washing both hands upto and including the elbows
  3. Doing masah of a quarter of the head
  4. Washing both feet, including the ankles.

SUN NAT(PROPHETIC TRADITIONS) ACT OF ABLUTION:
to define the intentions to begin by reciting bismil laahir ramanir raheem ( ALLAH, in whose name i begin, is the compassionate the most Merciful) to wash both hands upto the wrists to wash the mouth to do miswak to sniff water into the nostrils to do khilaal (pass wet fingers) of the beard to do masah of the entire head to do masah of the ears to do ablution in such a manner that the other limbs do not, in the meanwhile, get dried to keep up the sequence to wash three times every limb which has to be washed.

THINGS DESIRABLE (MUSTAHAB) FOR ABLUTION:
to do masah of the nape of the neck to face towards the qiblah to sit at a clean and elevated place to pass the hands over the limbs when pouring water over them not to unnecessarily sake the help of others not to indulge in worldly talks to drink a little of the left over water in a standing position to recite the kalima i shahaadat and to recite the following supplication
al laahum maj alnee minal muta tah hireena waj alnee min ibaadikas saaliheen.

THINGS WHICH NULLIFY ABLUTION:
anything oozing out from where stool or urine comes out blood puss and any purulent discharge flowing onto the body a mouthful of the vomit sleeping while lying or in a sitting position with the back leaning against something loud laughter while saying namaaz fainting for one reason or another water flowing from infected eyes.

THE ACCEPTED MODE OF TAKING BATH:
first , wash both hands upto the wrists then wash your private parts and remove all filth wherever it may be then do ablution and after ablution, pour water on the head and over the whole bosy and rub it thrice and should not talk to anybody.
there are three(fard) obligatory acts which go with a bath. these are:

  1. To gargle in a manner that water flows down the end of the throat.
  2. To put water into the nostrils so that all soft spots are washed and to pour water over the whole body so that no spot is left out

SITUATIONS WHERE BATH IS (FARD) OBLIGATORY

  1. Emission of seaman with lust.
  2. Nocturnal pollution
  3. Sexual intercourse between man and wife or without emmision of seaman,
  4. For woman only on completion of the monthly period (haiez)
  5. On completion of the end of the flow of blood after child birth (nifaas).

Tayammum

tayamnmum

if water is not available or there is an apprehension of ones ilness aggravating because of ablution or bath, then the command is to do procedure for doing tayam mum for ablution and for taking a bath. the only difference is in the intent, so that the tayam mum bath and the tayam mum for ablution, as the case may be , is clearly spelt out.

THERE ARE THREE (FARD)OBLIGATORY ACTS OF TAYAMMUM:

  1. To define the intent
  2. To wipe the entire face after striking the palm of both hands against a clod of earth.
  3. To wipe both the hands including the elbows, after striking them against a clod of earth.